The thyroid gland is a gland is a butterfly-shaped located on the front of the neck. These glands function to produce hormones, regulate metabolism, growth, body temperature, heart rate up. There are several hormones produced by the thyroid gland are listed below:
1. Triiodithyronin (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
These two hormones serve to set up quickly whether or not the body's metabolism. Triiodithyronin hormone and thyroxine will regulate how quickly the calorie burning occurs in the body. If the body produces excessive hormones T3 and T4, it will affect the body becomes very active to burn calories. This also affects the weight will fall faster. And conversely, if the hormones T3 and T4 in the body is less, then the weight will be easier ride because combustion occurs more slowly than normal conditions, this of course will cause obesity.
It is a type of hormone used to regulate the level of calcium in the blood. Calcium in the blood will help the process of bone formation and maintaining strong bones in order. But this hormone is not the only one that serves to regulate calcium in the blood, there are many other substances also help to control the level of calcium in the blood. Therefore, hormone calcitonin is often considered not needed by the body.
Thyroid cancer is a growth of abnormal cells in the thyroid gland. According to the study, thyroid cancer belongs to the rare type of cancer and could be cured if its existence is known from the beginning. So, of course, early detection is the most appropriate actions to prevent cancer to the extent that more severe. And this applies to all types of cancer, and even disease.
People who are at risk of thyroid cancer are those aged between 35 to 39 years, or 70 years and over. Women were considered easier to be hit by thyroid cancer two to three times more than men. The presumption is associated with hormonal changes due to the female reproductive system. Even so, there is no denying that the men would be susceptible to thyroid cancer if not living a healthy lifestyle.
Thyroid Cancer Types
Thyroid cancer, which occurs in the thyroid gland has several types:
1. Follicular Carcinoma
Approximately 15% of all thyroid cancers that occur are included into this type of follicular carcinoma. One type of thyroid cancer is more common in people who are elderly.
2. Papillary Carcinoma
Thyroid cancer types papillary carcinoma is a type of thyroid cancer most often occurs. 60% of cases of thyroid cancer that occurs is a type of thyroid cancer is papillary carcinoma. Papillary carcinoma usually affects women aged less than 40 years.
3. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma
Thyroid cancer is the most aggressive thyroid cancer. Although the case is very rare, but the type of thyroid cancer is very dangerous. Conditions anaplastic thyroid carcinoma occurs in 5% of all thyroid cancer cases has occurred and generally affects people aged 60 years and over.
4. Medullary thyroid carcinoma
medullary thyroid carcinoma occurs more rarely than two types of cancer that have been mentioned above. The percentage is about 5% -8% of all thyroid cancer cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma. However, unlike other types of thyroid cancer, thyroid cancer of this type is genetic. That is, if there is one family member suffering from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, the risk of another family member suffering from the same type of cancer is greater.
Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer
The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck more easily detected if there is a disease that attacked him. The main symptoms of thyroid cancer, for example, is the growth of a lump or swelling on the front of the neck. Of course it will be very easy to be detected.
Usually, the bump is at the bottom of the Adam's apple, in men, or can be felt when touched on women. These lumps are usually painless and it is this which makes the sufferer is unaware of the dangers of thyroid cancer that attack. In fact, if left unchecked, thyroid cancer will be more vicious and show the following symptoms:
- Sore throat: It would make it difficult to swallow food or drink.
- Voice changing: becoming more hoarse and do not get better in a long time.
- Neck ache: This occurs as a result of widespread cancer.
- Swollen lymph nodes in the neck: thyroid cancer that spread to nearby lymph nodes.
Sometimes, the swelling does not appear due to thyroid cancer. It might, bumps caused due to infection, mumps or other. Only about 5% of a lump in the thyroid gland caused by cancer.
Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer
To determine whether the symptoms that look really is thyroid cancer, the doctor will perform some checks for you as shown below:
1. Physical examination
The doctor will ask a family health history and any symptoms you are experiencing in this examination. The doctor will see if a lump or swelling that happens to you associated with thyroid cancer that may occur. If there is a suspicion further, the doctor will refer to the next test.
2. Thyroid function tests
The next test is a test of thyroid function, a type of blood test. Through this test, it can be seen whether the swelling of the neck of the patient caused by other conditions. This test will check the levels of certain hormones in the blood and can indicate if there health problems associated with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.
3. Fine-needle aspiration cytology
The procedure in this test uses a very small needle and put a lump in your neck. The needle is used to take a sample of cells to be examined under a microscope. With this test can be known whether the cells are cancerous or not.
4. Tests of hereditary diseases
The doctor will check this genetic test, whether the patient has a gene that increases the risk of thyroid cancer or not.
5. Imaging tests
Next, the patient will be advised to also perform imaging tests, such as CT scans, ultrasound or PET (positron emission tomography). This test will help physicians diagnose whether the cancer has spread to emerging out of the thyroid gland or not.
Thyroid Cancer Treatment
Here are some steps to cure thyroid cancer treatment:
This is a procedure removal of the thyroid gland, either partial (hemitiroidektomi) or lifting overall (total thyroidectomy). This procedure is done by considering the type and size of the cancer that has progressed.
2. Hormone replacement therapy
This therapy is done with the aim of replacing the hormones that can no longer be manufactured after the procedure, the surgical removal of the thyroid gland. To do so, the patient will be asked to take hormone replacement drugs for a lifetime. In addition, patients are advised to regularly check their blood, with the aim of monitoring hormone levels and adjust drug doses to suit his needs.
3. The regulation of calcium levels
In some patients have already undergone thyroidectomy procedures, the parathyroid gland which controls calcium levels can be affected by the appointment of the thyroid gland. As a result, the level of calcium in the body can become incompatible with the needs. Therefore, care is required to regulate the level of calcium in the body.
4. Radioactive iodine treatment
Radioactive iodine treatment aims to destroy cancer cells that may remain after surgery and prevent it from reappearing. However, this treatment can not be combined with hormone replacement therapy because it can reduce the level of effectiveness. In addition, patients should also reduce the consumption of iodine because it can also decrease the effectiveness of this treatment.
Patients who undergo radioactive iodine treatment are advised to avoid seafood, dairy products, cough medicine, as well as sea salt. Instead, patients are advised to consume meat, fruits and vegetables, and rice has a low iodine content. Pregnant women should avoid this treatment because it can affect fetal growth.
A side effect of this treatment is the decrease in fertility rates. For women, it may not give too many bad effects, but in men this treatment greatly affect fertility. Other side effects that may occur are nausea, dry mouth and eyes, and a change in sense of taste and smell.
5. External Radiotherapy
This procedure will utilize radioactive waves and redirect it towards the body affected cancer cells. Typically, external radiotherapy used to treat advanced thyroid cancer or anaplastic carcinoma. Duration of treatment depends on the type of cancer and developmental level.
Side effects that may occur from external radiotherapy treatments are dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue in patients.
This method is only done if the cancer anaplastic thyroid carcinoma types already spread to other body parts. Patients will consume very powerful chemotherapy drugs to kill cancer cells in the body. Chemotherapy may not be able to cure cancer occurring, but it can help relieve symptoms and slow its growth.
Patients who have undergone thyroid cancer treatment, should continue to monitor the health of the body. This is because the cancer could come back, even after removed through surgery. To that end, the patient might still advisable to test thyroid function on an ongoing basis.